There has almost certainly been a place of worship on the site of the present church since the 7th century. It was probably a Celtic foundation of St Adamnan (the name was later adapted to St Arnold). In 1187 Pope Gregory VIII granted a Confirmation Charter of the Church of Tanedas to the Priors and Canons of St Andrews, and in 1242 the Kirk of Tanatheys was dedicated by Bishop David de Bernham.
Bishop De Bernham laid down standards for the priests and equipment in his churches, including the instruction: “let not the font be of wood but of stone and of becoming appearance, and let it not be put to other uses.”
In the porch of the church is a pre-Reformation font, possibly as early as the 13th century, but it is said that at one time the women of the village used it as a dye-pot for their yarn.
Until the 19th century the church building was very basic. The floor had rough stones embedded in it and the seats were described as a source of discomfort to the congregation. The present building was erected in 1866 following a fire, which demolished the previous building, then only 20 years old.
There were major alterations to the church in the 1960s, and in 1976 the St Columba and St Francis windows were given in memory of the 2nd Lord Forres of Glenogil. After the parishes of Oathlaw and Tannadice united, the Oathlaw War Memorial windows were mounted on the north wall of the church. At the same time the sanctuary was opened out and an iron cross, designed and wrought by a member, was hung over the pulpit.
In 2002, when a new vestry and Sunday School extension was built archaeologists recovered about 50 bodies, some dating from the 12th century. These were re-interred in the church graveyard.